Since the end of World War II, the United Kingdom has experienced a remarkable transformation due to immigration. Initially, the government estimated that the expansion of the EU would only lead to an influx of up to 13,000 people a year. However, this prediction was quickly proven wrong as the number of immigrants to the UK increased significantly. In the late 19th century, a large number of Jewish immigrants escaping anti-Semitism, economic hardship, and political oppression in Russia and Eastern Europe began to settle in Great Britain.
By the 1890s, they had surpassed the German community in size. This was followed by a wave of Poles who arrived in 1945 and established communities in Manchester, Bradford and West London. Migration was a common occurrence in Britain during the 19th century, not only for native Britons, but also for a considerable number of immigrants who chose to make their homes in Britain. Between 120,000 and 150,000 people settled in Great Britain in the run-up to World War I, particularly in east London (in 1901 they formed almost a third of the population of Whitechapel), Manchester and Leeds.
The influx of immigrants to the UK was met with hostility from some politicians, journalists and social reformers who characterized Jews as physically and morally weakened people. This hostility reached its peak in 1968 when conservative politician Enoch Powell spoke out against continued immigration in his controversial Rivers of Blood speech. Today, immigration has had an immense impact on London's culture. The city is now home to a wide variety of cultures and ethnicities that have enriched its cultural landscape. From cuisine to music to art, London has been transformed by immigration and is now one of the most vibrant cities on Earth.